(vipaśyanā), Skt. (Pali, vipassanā); insight, clear seeing; intuitive cognition of the three marks of existence, namely, the impermanence (anitya), suffering (duhkha), and egolessness (anātman) of all physical and mental phenomena. In Mahāyāna Buddhism, vipashyanā is seen as analytical examination of the nature of things that leads to insight into the true nature of the world—emptiness (shūnyatā). Such insight prevents the arising of new passions. Vipashyanā is one of the two factors essential for the attainment of enlightenment; the other is shamatha (calming the mind).