(rnying-ma), Tib., lit. “School of the Ancients”; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The school brings together the oldest Buddhist traditions of Tibet, which were brought to the country from India by Padmasambhava and the monks Vimalamitra and Vairochana in the 8th century. Since the 15th century there has existed an independent collection of these teachings, which, however, is not included in the official Tibetan canon. The Nyingmapas consider dzogchen to be the supreme doctrine; the systematization of the dzogchen teaching by Lonchenpa and his commentary on it are considered authoritative.