Skt., lit., “enlightenment being”; in Mahāyāna Buddhism a bodhisattva is a being who seeks buddhahood through the systematic practice of the perfect virtues (pāramitā) but renounces complete entry into nirvāna until all beings are saved. The determining factor for his action is compassion (karunā), supported by highest insight and wisdom (prajñā). A bodhisattva provides active help, is ready to take upon himself the suffering of all other beings, and to transfer his own karmic merit to other beings. The way of a bodhisattva begins with arousing the thought of enlightenment (bodhichitta) and taking the bodhisattva vow (pranidhāna). The career of a bodhisattva is divided into ten stages (bhūmi). The bodhisattva ideal replaced in Mahāyāna the Hīnayāna ideal of the arhat, whose effort is directed towards the attainment of his own liberation.