Skt., Pali; meditation, mind development, all those practices usually designated as meditation. Two types of bhāvanā are distinguished: the development of tranquillity (shamatha) and clear seeing (vipashyanā). Tranquillity is the prerequisite for attaining clear seeing. According to the Visuddhimagga there are forty different exercises leading to the development of tranquillity. They include absorption (dhyāna), contemplation (samāpati), and concentration (samādhi).